Apache APISIX API Security

Secure your API with these 16 Practices with Apache APISIX - part 2

Last week, we listed 16 practices to help secure one’s APIs and described how to implement them with Apache APISIX. Authentication 🕵️️ - Verifies the identity of users accessing APIs.Authorization 🚦 - Determines permissions of authenticated users.Data Redaction 🖍️ - Obscures sensitive data for protection.Encryption 🔒 - Encodes data so only authorized parties can decode it.Error Handling ❌ - Manages responses when things go wrong, avoiding revealing sensitive info.Input Validation & D

Apache APISIX API Security

Secure your API with these 16 Practices with Apache APISIX

A couple of months ago, I stumbled upon this list of Secure your API with these 16 practices to secure your API: Authentication 🕵️️ - Verifies the identity of users accessing APIs.Authorization 🚦 - Determines permissions of authenticated users.Data Redaction 🖍️ - Obscures sensitive data for protection.Encryption 🔒 - Encodes data so only authorized parties can decode it.Error Handling ❌ - Manages responses when things go wrong, avoiding revealing sensitive info.Input Validation & Data Sani

Apache APISIX API Security

Secure your API with these 16 Practices with Apache APISIX - part 1

A couple of months ago, I stumbled upon this list of 16 practices to secure your API: Authentication 🕵️️ - Verifies the identity of users accessing APIs.Authorization 🚦 - Determines permissions of authenticated users.Data Redaction 🖍️ - Obscures sensitive data for protection.Encryption 🔒 - Encodes data so only authorized parties can decode it.Error Handling ❌ - Manages responses when things go wrong, avoiding revealing sensitive info.Input Validation & Data Sanitization 🧹 - Checks input da

Apache APISIX OWASP coraza

Hardening Apache APISIX with the OWASP's Coraza and Core Ruleset

The OWASP stands for Open Worldwide Application Security Project: The Open Worldwide Application Security Project is an online community that produces freely available articles, methodologies, documentation, tools, and technologies in the fields of IoT, system software and web application security. The OWASP provides free and open resources. It is led by a non-profit called The OWASP Foundation. The OWASP Top 10 - 2021 is the published result of recent research based on comprehensive data com

DevOps Apache APISIX canary

Canary releases with Apache APISIX

In a few words, the idea of canary releases is to deliver a new software version to only a fraction of the users, analyze the results, and decide whether to proceed further or not. If results are not aligned with expectations, roll back; if they are, increase the number of users exposed until all users benefit from the new version. In this post, I’d like to detail this introduction briefly, explain different ways to define the fraction, and show how to execute it with Apache APISIX. Int

performance imgproxy Apache APISIX

Resizing images on-the-fly

As a web architect, one of the many issues is asset management. And the most significant issue in assets is images. A naive approach would be to set an image and let the browser resize the image via CSS: img { height: 100%; width: 100%; object-fit: contain; } However, it means that you download the original image. It entails two problems: the size of the original image and the suboptimal browser-based resizing. This post will cover two alternatives: traditional and brand-new s

Apache APISIX plugin Lua analysis

Down the rabbit hole of an Apache APISIX plugin

My demo, Evolving your APIs, features a custom Apache APISIX plugin. I believe that the process of creating a custom plugin is relatively well-documented. However, I wanted to check the parameters of the _M.access(conf, ctx) function, especially the ctx one. The documentation states: The ctx parameter caches data information related to the request. You can use core.log.warn(core.json.encode(ctx, true)) to output it to error.log for viewing. Unfortunately, core.log ultimately depends on

Apache APISIX Ops DevOps

Ops friendly Apache APISIX

Though I always worked on the Dev side of IT, I was also interested in the Ops side. I even had a short experience being a WebSphere admin: I used it several times, helping Ops deal with the Admin console while being a developer. Providing a single package that Ops can configure and deploy in different environments is very important. As a JVM developer, I’ve been happy using Spring Boot and its wealth of configuration options: command-line parameters, JVM parameters, files, profiles, enviro

authentication API Gateway Apache APISIX Keycloak Spring Security

System architecture: move authentication to the API Gateway

When exposing an application to the outside world, consider a Reverse-Proxy or an API Gateway to protect it from attacks. Rate Limiting comes to mind first, but it shouldn’t stop there. We can factor many features in the API Gateway and should be bold in moving them from our apps. In this post, I’ll show how to implement authentication at the Gateway API stage. Overall authentication flow The API Gateway doesn’t authenticate but delegates authentication to an authentication

Apache APISIX etcd mysql

Apache APISIX without etcd

etcd is an excellent key-value distributed database used internally by Kubernetes and managed by the CNCF. It’s a great option, and that’s the reason why Apache APISIX uses it too. Yet, it’s not devoid of issues. First, some mention scalability, but one can expect this from a distributed data store that values consistency. Another issue may be the need for more familiarity with etcd. It’s relatively new, so your Ops team may need help operating it correctly while having

sticky session session affinity Apache APISIX Hazelcast Spring Session Spring Security

Sticky sessions with Apache APISIX - the demo

Last week, we described the concept behind sticky sessions: you forward a request to the same upstream because there’s context data associated with the session on that node. However, if necessary, you should replicate the data to other upstreams because this one might go down. In this post, we are going to illustrate it with a demo. The overall design Design options are limitless. I’ll keep myself to a familiar stack, the JVM. Also, as mentioned in the previous post, one should on

sticky session session affinity Apache APISIX

Sticky sessions with Apache APISIX - Theory

Sticky sessions, also known as session affinity, is a mechanism by which a routing component that acts as a facade always routes a request to the same underlying upstream node. In this post, I’ll describe the reason behind sticky sessions, available alternatives, and how to implement them via Apache APISIX. Why sticky sessions? Sticky sessions became popular when we stored the state on the upstream node, not the database. I’ll use the example of a simplified e-commerce shop to exp

Apache APISIX Spring Spring Cloud Gateway

Evaluating Apache APISIX vs. Spring Cloud Gateway

Given the number of API Gateways available on the market, I’m regularly asked which is better. Better is a very subjective term. However, there’s no denying that if you’re advocating for a product, you should know your product and its competitors. In this post, I’d like to share my understanding of Spring Cloud Gateway and how it compares to Apache APISIX. I’m cautious when comparing products because most comparisons I read are heavily biased. That’s a risk,

data location data residency API Gateway Apache APISIX Apache ShardingSphere

Managing Data Residency - the demo

I explained the concepts and theory behind Data Residency in a previous post. It’s time to get our hands dirty and implement it in a simple demo. The sample architecture In the last section of the previous post, I proposed a sample architecture where location-based routing happened at two different stages: The API Gateway checks for an existing X-Country header. Depending on its value, it forwards the request to the computed upstream; If no value is found or no value matches, it forwar

data location data residency API Gateway Apache APISIX Apache ShardingSphere

Managing Data Residency - concepts and theory

Cloud computing has opened a Pandora’s Box of many original issues compared to sound old on-premise systems. I believe that chief among them is Data Residency, or Data Location: Data localization or data residency law requires data about a nation’s citizens or residents to be collected, processed, and/or stored inside the country, often before being transferred internationally. Such data is usually transferred only after meeting local privacy or data protection laws, such as givin

gRPC Spring Boot Apache APISIX

gRPC on the client side

Most inter-systems communication components that use REST serialize their payload in JSON. As of now, JSON lacks a widely-used schema validation standard: JSON Schema is not widespread. Standard schema validation allows delegating the validation to a third-party library and being done with it. Without one, we must fall back to manual validation in the code. Worse, we must keep the validation code in sync with the schema. XML has schema validation out-of-the-box: an XML document can declare a gr

authentication OpenID Connect OAuth Apache APISIX

Authenticate with OpenID Connect and Apache APISIX

Lots of companies are eager to provide their identity provider: Twitter, Facebook, Google, etc. For smaller businesses, not having to manage identities is a benefit. However, we want to avoid being locked into one provider. In this post, I want to demo how to use OpenID Connect using Google underneath and then switch to Azure. OpenID Connect The idea of an authorization open standard started with OAuth around 2006. Because of a security issue, OAuth 2.0 superseded the initial version. OAuth 2

Apache APISIX security

Securing Admin access to Apache APISIX

API Gateways are critical components in one’s infrastructure. If an attacker could change the configuration of routes, they could direct traffic to their infrastructure. Consequences could range from data theft to financial losses. Worse, data theft could only be noticed after a long time by mirroring the load. Hence, protecting your API Gateway is of utmost importance. In this short blog post, I’ll list a couple of ways to secure your Apache APISIX admin access. Change admin toke

API PostgreSQL PostgREST API Gateway Apache APISIX no code MVP

A poor man's API

Creating a full-fledged API requires resources, both time and money. You need to think about the model, the design, the REST principles, etc., without writing a single line of code. Most of the time, you don’t know whether it’s worth it: you’d like to offer a Minimum Viable Product and iterate from there. I want to show how you can achieve it without writing a single line of code. The solution The main requirement of the solution is to use the PostgreSQL database. It’s

Rust WebAssembly API Gateway Apache APISIX

Rewriting the Apache APISIX response-rewrite plugin in Rust

Last week, I described the basics on how to develop and deploy a Rust plugin for Apache APISIX. The plugin just logged a message when it received the request. Today, I want to leverage what we learned to create something more valuable: write part of the response-rewrite plugin with Rust. Adding a hard-coded header Let’s start small and add a hard-coded response header. Last week, we used the on_http_request_headers() function. The proxy_wasm specification defines several function hooks

Rust WebAssembly API Gateway Apache APISIX

Apache APISIX loves Rust! (and me too)

Apache APISIX is built upon the shoulders of two giants: NGINX, a widespread Open Source reverse-proxyOpenResty, a platform that allows scripting NGINX with the Lua programming language via LuaJIT This approach allows APISIX to provide out-of-the-box Lua plugins that should fit most business requirements. But it always comes a time when generic plugins don’t fit your requirements. In this case, you can write your own Lua plugin. However, if Lua is not part of your tech stack, diving int

Kubernetes Gateway API Apache APISIX

A quick glance at the Kubernetes Gateway API

In one of my recent blog posts, I described several ways to access Kubernetes pods. One can access a pod through its IP, but pods are naturally transient. The nominal way is to configure a Service: its IP is stable, and Kubernetes' job is to keep the mapping between a Service and its underlying pods up-to-date. Different kinds of services are available: internal only, NodePort to finally allow access from outside the cluster, and LoadBalancer that relies on a third-party component - in general, a

service discovery DevOps Apache APISIX

Writing your own service discovery client for Apache APISIX

API Gateways in general, and Apache APISIX in particular, provide a single entry point into one’s information system. This architecture allows for managing load balancing and failover over similar nodes. For example, here’s how you can create a route balanced over two nodes in Apache APISIX: curl http://localhost:9080/apisix/admin/routes/1 -H 'X-API-KEY: edd1c9f034335f136f87ad84b625c8f1' -X PUT -i -d '{ 'uri': '/*', 'upstream': { 'type': 'roundrobin', 'nodes': { '

security webapp API Gateway Apache APISIX

Secure your web apps with an API Gateway

API management solutions, also known as API gateways, are a must in the day and age of APIs. However, once you’ve set up such a gateway, you can use it for different purposes unrelated to APIs. Today, I want to show you how to improve the security of web apps. Prevent sniffing Browsers are fantastic pieces of technology that try to make the life of users as comfortable as possible. However, the balance between ease of use and security may sometimes tip on the former to the latter’